Science Seeks Integrity After Scandals

first_imgThe Hwang scandal (01/09/2006) has prompted a good deal of international soul searching about scientific ethics.  (Now, it appears that Hwang also corrupted officials with monetary gifts; see New Scientist).  Some journals are preaching ethics like an old time revival is in session.  This raises an interesting question: what is the source of ethics?    Despite widespread belief in the scientific establishment that ethics is a product of evolution, leading journals are calling for the old Judeo-Christian moral qualities of integrity, honesty, trustworthiness and virtue.  For example, three bioethicists writing in Science1 (the journal victimized by Hwang’s deceit) recalled how the early chemist Robert Boyle (a staunch Christian) took steps to enforce honesty among his fellow scientists:In the 17th century, trust and integrity in science were central to the system of publication that we have inherited.  For example, the scientific community had to decide which reports from explorers from distant parts of the globe were reliable.  The issue also arose for the emerging experimental sciences, which Boyle and his colleagues at the Royal Society of London argued depended on actually witnessing the experimental events.  Boyle created the precursor to the modern scientific publication to provide sufficient detail so that other scientists could replicate the experiments, thus adding witnesses to the experimental data.  In cases where this was impractical, it would serve to produce sufficient information so that the readers were “virtual witnesses”.    An important part of 17th-century scientific epistemology concerned establishing how one could tell that the reports were worth believing.  This included information about the skill of purported “witnesses,” design of the author, internal consistency of the account given, and whether contradictory “testimony” existed in the scientific literature.  Perhaps the most important protection was the integrity of the “informant,”  Therefore, establishing the rules by which one was trustworthy (a “gentleman”) became critical.   (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The word integrity appears 12 times in this short editorial.  Though scientists today have inherited Boyle’s system of procedures to ensure trustworthiness, and though many institutions try to teach ethics, the authors deny that procedures can guarantee results without individual morality:Although some research universities now require that doctoral and postdoctoral students complete fairly elaborate courses in ethics, many more treat students to a sandbox morality lesson consisting of the admonition not to lie, cheat, or steal data.  The courses may have little effect on future misconduct.  The idea that research training, such as that required in the United States for some federally funded trainees and emphasized by the National Research Council report, in itself would have prevented fabrication on such a grand scale in South Korea strains credibility.    Teachers must themselves be judged by the authorities in our institutions–not only for their ability to produce science, but also to be scientists of virtue and integrity.  The ability to give testimony and to act as a witness can be modeled, and students should be allowed to exercise skills of discernment and skepticism about results that seem unlikely or behaviors that are worrisome without punishment.  The lesson to be learned is that we need to do a better job of holding research institutions accountable for setting up systems and mentorship that will produce integrity in its scientists.Nature,2 similarly, after the extent of the scandal came to light, pounded its pulpit about the centrality of ethics: “Research ethics matter immensely to the health of the scientific enterprise,” an Editorial pronounced: “Anyone who thinks differently should seek employment in another sphere.”  (What other spheres might be happy without ethics was left to the imagination.)  This same editorial tried to draw a distinction between relative and absolute ethical violations: “Furthermore, the question of what constitutes an ethical transgression may vary between societies that elect to impose different rules, whereas scientific fraud knows no borders.”  But can an evolutionary process yield universal standards of right and wrong?    Both Nature and Science discussed their initiatives to shore up the trustworthiness of papers they publish by fortifying the peer review process and opening the “black box” to public scrutiny.  These efforts, however praiseworthy, beg the question whether process can compensate for individual integrity.1Mildred K. Cho, Glenn McGee, David Magnus, “Lessons of the Stem Cell Scandal,” Science, 3 February 2006: Vol. 311. no. 5761, pp. 614 – 615, DOI: 10.1126/science.1124948.2Editorial, “Ethics and Fraud,” Nature 439, 117-118 (12 January 2006) | doi:10.1038/439117a.You can’t get blood out of a turnip, and you can’t get ethics out of evolution.  A simplistic evolutionary ethic is that whatever aids fitness is good.  This was the polluted fountain from which eugenics, social Darwinism, radical capitalism, nazism and communism sprung.  A less progressive evolutionary ethic is that whatever aids survival is good.  But a more reasoned analysis leads one to understand that ethics is utterly meaningless in Darwin’s world.  The word “good” does not even exist in the Darwin Dictionary.  Evolution is what evolution does.  The detached, dispassionate scientist watches a society kill itself through treachery and self-interest, and merely takes notes without any hint of judgment.  That is why even survival is not “good” or “bad” in an evolving, materialistic universe.  It may make you feel bad that a nation of terrorists swamps your alabaster city, or that a fellow scientist got rich by plagiarizing your work through bribery and fraud, but feelings are mere neurophysical responses to certain stimuli.  We must realize this when listening to the sermons of the Big Science revivalists; they are speaking nonsense to claim that integrity is good, or scientific progress is good, or fraud is bad.  Don’t let them borrow words from the Bible.  It is cheating to say cheating is a sin when you don’t believe sin exists.  To be consistent, an evolutionist would have to say, even if the whole planet destroyed itself, so what?  No big deal.  Things happen.    Now think even deeper.  All such words like fraud, misconduct, punishment, trust, integrity, virtue, and honesty are words describing true moral categories.  Evolutionists try to construe these words as artifacts of social evolution.  They employ game theory (02/10/2004, 09/05/2003) to describe means by which populations reward cooperators and punish non-cooperators.  They think that these natural means bypass the need for moral categories and yield systems of ethics that mimic the Judeo-Christian values and produce religion (see 02/02/2006 story).  Why, then, did Nature, which frequently publishes such ideas, say that “scientific fraud knows no borders”?  This is a statement assuming absolute morality.  Surely a consistent evolutionist could conceive of a population where completely different “ethical standards” might have emerged.  But if not, if they claim that moral absolutes familiar to us are inevitable by a process of evolution, then they have ascribed these moral qualities to matter, as if they were like constants of physics.  We could then ask anthropic questions, like what fine-tuned the moral constants to produce a universe in which honesty emerged as a universally-acknowledged virtue?    Secular scientists get worked up over ethics when serious lapses occur that threaten their trustworthiness.  Their speculations about how the moral sense evolved provide a thin cloak over an image of God they cannot hide.  By preaching virtue, integrity, trustworthiness and honesty, they are tacitly affirming the Biblical teaching that morality is rooted in the unchanging moral perfections of God.  Interesting that Hwang’s downfall has been called a “fall from grace” (see New Scientist).  Would that today’s Royal Society, AAAS and NAS and every other institution of Big Science, repent of their apostasy, and again heed the admonition Robert Boyle wrote in his will, “Wishing them also a most happy success in their laudable attempts to discover the true nature of the works of God, and praying, that they and all other searchers into physical truths may cordially refer their attainments to the glory of the Author of Nature, and the benefit of mankind.”(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Read More..

The hope of a second wind

first_imgPam Green of Second Chances believes that true change is possible if everyone plays a part in improving the lives of their fellow citizens. (Images: Second Chances)A complicated break-up left Pam Green destitute, but she managed to overcome adversity with the help of close friends who lent her their support.Following her personal triumph, Green took it upon herself to help other people going through similar struggles who had also been left without a home or a means to provide for themselves.Shortly after making this decision, she founded Second Chances, an initiative aimed at creating social upliftment and embracing ubuntu, the spirit of helping your fellow citizen, through social media.“I have always felt the desire to help,” Green told Independent Online.“In my school days I used to go a couple of times a week and volunteer at orphanages in the afternoons. I started actively initiating projects and getting more involved… It is very important to pay it forward and always remember where you come from.”THE POWER OF SOCIAL MEDIASocial media has fast become a powerful tool for companies and organisations to get their names into the public eye and drive their business.It is no surprise then that Second Chances tapped into this potential to help drive social upliftment and get South African citizens to play an active role in improving the lives of the less fortunate.The organisation makes use of social media to bring pressing issues such as unemployment, poverty and substance abuse to the attention of people who are in a position to help. In this way, it acts as a link between the source of help and where the help is needed.GET INVOLVEDIf you would like to play a part in this online initiative that is changing people’s lives one tweet at a time, visit its get involved page for more details.To see some of the great work Second Chances is doing, visit its Facebook page.“I’m so grateful to those who now follow the work that I do, who support the work that I do and get involved,” Green said.“But most importantly (I am grateful) to the people who trust me enough to get involved in their lives.”Watch Green pay it forward:PLAY YOUR PARTPlay Your Part urges you to share your story. If you or anyone you know has gone out of their way to brighten up the day for someone else, we want to know.If you have a story to tell, be it your own or that of an organisation or initiative dear to you, submit your story or video to our website and tell us how South Africa is playing a part to build a better life for all.last_img read more

Read More..

4 Ways for Companies to Remain Authentic in the Age of Technology

first_imgA few weeks ago, Google presented a demo of a new AI system called Duplex. Duplex is an extension of Google Assistant that has the ability to communicate eerily like a human being. Listening to the recordings, there were times I wasn’t quite sure which speaker was human and which was a computer.Of course, robotic phone interactions are nothing new. We’ve all had to listen to a robot read off a list of extensions to reach the department we’re looking for, and we’ve seen chatbots become more prevalent for customer interactions over the past couple of years.But Google Duplex is different. It’s probably still years away from being ready for mass use, but to a lot of people, its development signals the end of interpersonal communication as we know it. Companies will adopt robots to replace call centers, while customers will use Duplex to make appointments and resolve issues. Pretty soon, it’ll just be robots talking to robots, and people will never interact with each other again…right?I’m not so convinced. Audiences seek out genuine experiences with the brands they trust and reward them with their loyalty and advocacy. From their first interactions with a company via its thought leadership content all the way through the remainder of the marketing process to sales, customer service, and everywhere in between, people want authentic interactions.Google has labored to create this robot that sounds exactly like a human being precisely because nobody wants to have a conversation with a robot. This tool (and others like it) suggest what people really want: authenticity.While I understand the concern of those who say Duplex and other AI-powered tools like it will eliminate the need for human interaction — and certainly agree that misuse of this technology could be dangerous — I still see Duplex as proof of the value consumers everywhere place on authenticity.Technology enables us to interact with customers more efficiently, but that doesn’t mean those interactions can’t also be authentic. Here are four ways companies can use technology while still remaining human:1. Personalize your tech.As humans, we’re a little obsessed with ourselves. We love it when others remember our names or details about our lives that we’ve shared with them. And we extend that positive feeling to brands when they do the same. Nearly 90 percent of consumers have said that personally relevant content makes them view a brand more favorably, and 78 percent said it makes them more likely to buy something.Thankfully, technology can allow you to create those personal touches while still automating contact with customers. There are plenty of customer relationship management tools and even chatbots that help brands communicate with audience members in ways that feel deeply personal but don’t drain all your time and resources. If you want to take advantage of the efficiency tech has to offer while remaining authentic, then your first step is to get personal.2. Make good first impressions.I’m sure you’ve heard that it takes just seven seconds to make a first impression, but did you know that first impressions remain engrained in people’s minds for months? This is true of interpersonal relationships, and it’s also true of interactions between your company and its customers.If a customer contacts your company for help with a problem, only to be greeted and assisted by a robotic voice or an automatic email, you won’t be making a good first impression. He may be hesitant to reach out for further assistance, or he might even be slow to trust the human employees who eventually do come to his aid.This doesn’t mean you should avoid technology for fear of turning off customers. It simply means that real interactions should take priority, especially for newer customers who are still getting to know you.It might be wise to assign your customers human points of contact and introduce them to automated service options as you build trust with them. This ensures your customers have a positive first impression of both your company and the automated service. When a trusted person recommends using an automated service, customers will be more inclined to use and be patient with the technology, and that’s a win for everyone.3. Be transparent when robots are involved.This may not be a huge issue right now, but Google Duplex certainly signals that it will be in the future: If you’re going to use technology like this, you need to let the people interacting with it know that it’s not a real person.As I said earlier, when I listened to Duplex book a haircut, it honestly was difficult to tell at times which voice belonged to the robot, and I guarantee the person on the other end of the line had no clue to whom (or what) she was speaking. In a few years, these conversations will be the norm. You and I will converse with robots without even realizing it.Utilizing this AI technology may save businesses a lot of money, but the truth is that people don’t trust robots as much as or in the same way that they do other human beings. And if that’s the case, people won’t trust companies that blur the lines between robots and human beings.4. Don’t overdo it.A few weeks ago, I was expecting a package that never arrived at my home. The tracking number indicated the package was delivered, but I never saw it, so I called the shipper to see whether I could get more information. The robot on the line repeated what I already knew and directed me to check the website (where I had just been) for more information. I was never given the option to speak to a real person, and I ended up in a loop with no clear help in sight.Thankfully, a neighbor had been holding my package and brought it by later that day, but the experience left a sour taste in my mouth. Nothing is more frustrating than a company forcing its customers to use technology when they don’t want to and when it doesn’t create more value in the customer relationship. The last key to authenticity when using technology in your business? Don’t overdo it. Don’t feel as though you must use a technology simply because it exists. Use it when it benefits your business and benefits your customers.We are seeing new and exciting technological advances every day. Many of these will be brought into the business world, but it’s important that companies never allow technologies to diminish their ability to be authentic and transparent with their customers. These four tips will ensure that business leaders can maintain authenticity while embracing technologies that will push their businesses forward. John HallCo-founder of Influence & Co. and Keynote Speaker AI is Not the Holy Grail of Sales, at Least Not… John Hall is the CEO of Influence & Co., a keynote speaker, and the author of “Top of Mind.” How Self-Service Technology Can Boost Startup G… Tags:#AI#artificial intellgence#authenticity#customer relationship#customer service#Duplex#Google#tech adoption With This One Question, You’ll Never Need an Ic… Related Posts Man or Machine? For Better Customer Service, Us…last_img read more

Read More..

Attention Is Expensive

first_imgThe social tools make it possible for you to get attention. They provide you with everything you need to avoid obscurity. There is no reason that you should be a secret agent, possessing amazing abilities without anyone knowing who you are or how to reach you.The tools are mostly free. Attention, however, is expensive.Time: The first price you pay to gain attention you pay for in time. You have to invest time in the activities that drive attention. Getting attention takes more time than most people think, but it takes less time than any other period in human history. If you don’t have the time to invest, you also won’t have the attention you want.Energy: The second payment you must make is in energy. You have to devote your focus and energy to attention-getting activities. You can’t spend energy browsing the web, living in your inbox, or binge watching Netflix. Attention doesn’t follow passivity. It only follows action.Creativity: The third payment comes in the form of creativity. Attention follows creators, particularly those who create excellent content. The price to create content compelling to the audience whose attention you want is very high. Content creation requires resourcefulness and creativity. Taking pictures with your friends at a conference is fun, and it may get you a little attention, but it isn’t a long-term attention-gaining strategy. For long-term attention, look at Seth Godin.An attention-gaining strategy takes patience. You’re making a payment of time and energy and creativity. It works. Just not right away.A lot of people would like attention for their product or service. A good many people would like attention for their brand, personal or professional. A small number of people want attention for all the wrong reasons.Most people, however, will not invest the time, the energy, or their creativity to get the attention they need. They don’t want to make those investments, and they greatly prefer being comfortable.You can have whatever you want, provided you pay the price in full beforehand. Essential Reading! Get my 2nd book: The Lost Art of Closing “In The Lost Art of Closing, Anthony proves that the final commitment can actually be one of the easiest parts of the sales process—if you’ve set it up properly with other commitments that have to happen long before the close. The key is to lead customers through a series of necessary steps designed to prevent a purchase stall.” Buy Nowlast_img read more

Read More..

NU recovers, beats Adamson in season opener

first_imgMOST READ Sports venues to be ready in time for SEA Games PLAY LIST 00:59Sports venues to be ready in time for SEA Games01:27Filipino athletes get grand send-off ahead of SEA Games00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. LATEST STORIES Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC AFP official booed out of forum Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH Jaja Santiago gave NU a 14-6 lead in the fourth set as the Lady Bulldogs’ cruised to victory from that point on.“The first game is always exciting and I told my team to always remember to enjoy themselves because they also worked really hard for this,” said NU head coach Babes Castillo in Filipino.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“I think what happened in the third set was they seemed to lack the energy and their movements slowed down. That’s our struggle for now but we’ll of course look into it.”Setter Jasmine Nabor then, made a crucial block on Adamson’s Chiara Permentilla to put NU at the 24-13 match point.center_img Super sub: Rozier powers Celtics past Hawks, 119-110 Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Read Next National University brushed off an earlier mistake and fended off Adamson University in four sets, 25-15, 25-23, 16-25, 25-13, in the opening game of the UAAP Season 80 women’s volleyball tournament Saturday at Mall of Asia Arena.The Lady Bulldogs momentarily lost track of its goal and stumbled in the third set, but the ladies in navy-and-gold ultimately recovered in the fourth frame.ADVERTISEMENT Santiago topped all scorers with 16 points while Aiko Urdas and Audrey Paran had nine points apiece.Permentilla had 12 points to lead the Lady Falcons while the returning Mylene Paat added 11.Although the two teams didn’t show that much disparity in their offensive games, Adamson held a 39-37 advantage in spikes, it was in the defensive aspect that NU differentiated itself with the Lady Bulldogs gaining a 12-6 difference in blocks.The Lady Bulldogs also enjoyed 35 free points due to the Lady Falcons’ errors.ADVERTISEMENT NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers View commentslast_img read more

Read More..

Jeremy Lin stopped from boarding Raptors bus as security has no clue who he is

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, too FILE – Jeremy Lin #17 of the Toronto Raptors shoots the ball as T.J. McConnell #12 of the Philadelphia 76ers defends in the second half during Game Five of the second round of the 2019 NBA Playoffs at Scotiabank Arena on May 7, 2019 in Toronto, Canada. Vaughn Ridley/Getty Images/AFPSomehow, a security guard at the Milwaukee Bucks’ arena still don’t know who Jeremy Lin is.The Toronto Raptors point guard, who is in his ninth NBA season, said he was stopped by a security guard at Fiserv Forum, where the Milwaukee Bucks play, after Game 2 of the Eastern Conference Finals on his way to the team bus.ADVERTISEMENT Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Huge Toronto crowd celebrates Raptors’ historic win PLAY LIST 01:08Huge Toronto crowd celebrates Raptors’ historic win03:12Kevin Durant out with Achilles injury; to undergo MRI on Tuesday01:43Who are Filipinos rooting for in the NBA Finals?02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss LATEST STORIES ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFP Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew PVL: Creamline vents ire on PacificTown-Army for 1st win View comments The Raptors went on to beat the Bucks in six games to reach the NBA Finals for the first time where the defending champion Golden State Warriors.The Warriors were the first team Lin played for after he went undrafted in 2010.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport “After Game 2 in Milwaukee, I was trying to get to the team bus and one of the dudes in the Milwaukee Arena just screams at me,” Lin said on the Bill Michaels Sports Talk Network. “He’s like, ‘Where do you think you’re going?!’ And I’m like, ‘Uh, I’m trying to get to the team bus.’ He’s like, ‘What? Where’s your pass?“I was like, ‘I don’t have a pass. I don’t know what you’re talking about. I don’t have a pass.’ This happens in a lot of arenas, so I just kind of go with the flow.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsIn 2015, Lin, who just signed with the Charlotte Hornets that time, was also stopped by security for the same reason.‘Went to the Hornets arena for first time and tried convincing security I’m a player,’ Lin tweeted in September of 2015. ‘She said, ‘What team?!?’ lollll.’ PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war MOST READlast_img read more

Read More..

Prague prepares for England fans’ long weekend with ‘anti-conflict units’

first_imgEuro 2020 qualifying The Observer Czech Republic (Football) Reuse this content The Fiver: sign up and get our daily football email. Police have vowed to show zero tolerance for violations of local laws, which limit the consumption of alcohol on the streets and demand quiet in neighbourhoods deemed residential after 10pm.The operation will be backed up by 11 British officers, the Czech Republic’s biggest deployment of foreign police agents for a match, as spotters responsible for identifying and communicating with troublesome English supporters.The match will be played at Slavia Prague’s Eden Arena, several miles from the city centre. Lt-Col Jakub Schoř, of the Czech police presidium’s national football information unit, called the game “a big challenge [because] so many fans have never [before] come to Prague before at one time”.He added: “Prague is a very attractive city for away fans in terms of price of beer and by playing the fixture on Friday night it has a new dimension and becomes even more attractive. With such a big number of away fans, it is assumed that some misbehaviour may occur.” Czech Republic (World news) Read more Share on Messenger Share on Twitter Share on WhatsApp Topics England The fall of Prague: ‘Drunk tourists are acting like they’ve conquered our city’center_img Czech police have been put on high alert for the arrival of an estimated 6,000 English supporters here for Friday’s Euro 2020 qualifier between England and the Czech Republic, with preparations afoot to deploy anti-riot squads in the event of violent disorder.With widespread fears of alcohol‑fuelled disturbances that could be exacerbated by the country’s reputation for cheap beer, an unprecedented number of officers – including special English‑speaking “anti-conflict units” – will patrol the capital’s tourist districts for a fixture designated as high risk. Criminal, traffic and helicopter units, along with police on horseback, will be on duty for a match that has already drawn an appeal from the England manager, Gareth Southgate, for fans to be on their best behaviour. Football violence news Most fans are expected to spend the weekend in Prague, putting an added burden on a city already struggling to cope with the effects of modern tourism, including a flourishing trade in organised pub crawls that have elicited complaints from local residents.Prague’s extensive surveillance camera system will be used to monitor fans’ behaviour away from the stadium, a city council spokesperson said.Security plans have been under way for months, with the Football Association, its Czech equivalent, the local municipality, the England supporters’ club and the British embassy in Prague all involved.The embassy’s consular section will be on standby for emergencies. It has prepared a video of dos and don’ts to be posted on Facebook and Twitter. Along with the supporters’ club, it is setting up a stall in the city centre to act as an information base.Some bar owners are taking contingency steps. O’Che’s Irish bar, in the historic old town district, will hire extra security guards to deal with potentially unruly fans. “We are not really worried, because we have English people every weekend,” said Jan, the bar’s manager, who declined to give his last name. “But we know that English fans can be completely crazy when they are angry. But it’s business and we’ll survive.” Share on Pinterest Read more Share via Email Share on Facebook Gareth Southgate worried about disorder in Prague and racism in Sofia Europe Share on LinkedIn Local police have dismissed the risk of organised violence but are concerned Czech hooligans may try to seize flags as trophies. “English fans are considered everywhere in the world an attractive rival, so it is likely that Czech hooligans will attempt to obtain English flags,” said Schoř. “The risk [lies] in the antisocial behaviour of individuals, which, considering the big amount of away fans, may lead to massive spontaneous disturbances.”In that case, the police would be ready to use force, he said. “Visiting fans are more than welcome but if the situation is getting worse and needs an intervention of anti-riot units, we are ready to take action. I recommend to follow instructions given by the police in order to avoid any useless troubles such as paying a fine or being arrested.”last_img read more

Read More..